HISTORY OF SOLAR COOKING → July 1987
1200s → People have sun-dried fruits, vegetables, fish and meats for eight centuries to preserve them
1600s A German physicist, Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus, made large lenses to boil water in a clay pot. This was first reported in the first-published study of solar cookers in 1767 by French-Swiss scientist Bénédict Horace de Saussure (Halacy, p. 3)
1767 Saussure’s was the first recorded effort to solar cook food. He built a miniature greenhouse with 5 layers of glass boxes turned upside down on a black table and reported cooking fruit. He later built a cooker of 2 pine boxes topped with 3 layers of glass, and later still added wool insulation between the two boxes. He predicted, “Someday some usefulness might be drawn from this device …(for it) is actually quite small, inexpensive, (and) easy to make” (Saussure, pp 55,59). French contemporary, DuCarlu, added mirrors and reported cooking meat in one hour (Halacy, 1992, p. 3).
1830 English astronomer Sir John Herschel cooked food in a similar insulated box on an expedition to South Africa.
1860s and 70s Augustin Mouchot was the first to combine the box/oven heat trap and burning mirrors concepts to create a solar oven, a solar still, a solar pump and ultimately the first solar steam engine. He saw great commercial potential in France’s sun-rich, fuel-poor colonies in North Africa and Asia. In 1877 Mouchot devised solar cookers for French soldiers in Algeria, including a shiny metal cone, made from a 105.5˚ section of a circle. He baked bread in 3 hours, bult a separate cooker to steam vegetables, tried shishkabobs in a parabolic cooker and also wrote the first book on Solar Energy and its Industrial Applications. He also pasteurized water and wine, and worked on a solar device to break down water to hydrogen and oxygen. When improved coal transport and better political relations with England restored France’s source of coal, interest in solar energy waned and a discouraged Mouchot went back to teaching math. (Butti & Perlin, pp 66, 70-73; Narayanaswamy 2001, p. 93; Halacy, 1992, p. 3).
1876 In India W. Adams developed an octagonal oven with 8 mirrors which cooked rations for 7 soldiers in 2 hours (Narayanaswamy, 2001, p. 72). Dr. Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the American Smithsonian Institution, was the first recorded inventor of solar cookers in which the heat collector was outside in the sun but the cooker itself was in the house, with heat carried from collector to cooker by circulating oil. This solar boiler’s stored heat allowed cooking in the evening.
1884 Another Smithsonian scientist, Dr. Samuel P. Langley, solar cooked meals atop Mt. Whitney in California (Halacy, p. 4).
1891 Clarence Kemp, ‘father of solar energy in the USA,’ patented a solar water heater that enjoyed broad popularity, especially in California. Nearly 30% of houses in Pasadena had solar water heating systems by 1897. This industry declined during WWII when copper, a key material, was heavily rationed (Sklar & Sheinkopf, 1995).
1894 Xiao’s Duck Shop in Sichuan, China, roasted ducks by solar cooking (Wang, X., 1992, p. 12).
1930s France sent many solar cookers to its colonies in Africa. India began to investigate solar energy as a substitute for dwindling wood and depletion of soil from burning crop residues and dung (Halacy, p. 4).
1940s – 70s Dr. Maria Telkes in the USA researched several combination types of solar cookers, including some with heat retention chemicals (Halacy, P. 4) and published a book, Solar Ovens, in 1968 (Hoda, 1981, p. 5).
1945 Indian pioneer Sri M. K. Ghosh designed the first solar box cooker to be commercially produced (Hoda, p. 5).
1950s Water heaters were popular in Florida until electricity rates fell with plentiful, government-subsidized energy, and consumers were urged to use more and more (Sklar & Sheinkopf, 1995). Indian scientists in government laboratories designed and manufactured commercial solar ovens and solar reflectors, but they weren’t readily accepted, partly because there were still lower-cost alternatives. Farrington Daniels and George Löf at the U. of Wisconsin, USA, introduced concentrator cookers in northern Mexico, with some acceptance, and Tom Lawand et al, Brace Research Institute at McGill U., Canada, tested steam cookers in several developing countries, but in these areas, too, there were still lower-cost alternatives for households. (Halacy, p. 4). 1955 The International Solar Energy Society began as the Association for Applied Solar Energy, whose first conference in Phoenix, AZ, USA, included many practical solar cookers. By then the technical basics of solar cooking were known. Exhibited solar cookers included parabolics by M.L. Ghai of India, Georg O.G. Löf (US), Adnan Tarcici (Lebanon) and S. Goto (Japan) and box cookers by Maria Telkes (US) and Freddy Ba Hli (Burma).
1959 The U. N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) measured water-heating capacities of a parabolic cooker and an oven type cooker (Löf, 1963, p. 132).
1960s The U.N. tried a few pilot projects with a variety of elaborate devices designed by engineers with little or no attention to consumer needs, then blamed ‘resistance to change’ for lack of immediate intensive use.
1961 A United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy included many solar cooker pioneers, including Telkes, Löf, Duffie, Prata and Abu-Hussein.
1970s Spreading deforestation prompted research and promotion of solar cooking by governments of China and India. A petroleum shortage temporarily created new interest in renewable energy worldwide.
1973 Barbara Kerr, USA, built many types of concentrator and box type solar cookers from descriptions, including Ghosh’s box cooker in India. She used simplest materials inspired by retained heat cookers (‘hay boxes’) and developed low-cost, simple solar cookers using recycled materials and aluminum foil. She worked with Bob Larson through People united for Self-Help to share these simple solar tools with homeless and low-income neighborhoods.
1976 Kerr and her neighbor, Sherry Cole, cooked 2 meals per day for 40 people for two weeks for a women’s conference. Kerr, an RN with a Masters in social work also did extensive pioneer work on solar food dryers, sanitizers and sterilizers and through-the-wall solar cookers.
1978 Kerr and Cole began small-scale production and promotion of cookers and plans for people to make their own. Prof. Bob Metcalf learned about Kerr-Cole cookers through Fred Barrett, USDA, bought one, and immediately became a regular user and began research on their germ-killing capacities. He quickly became a promoter of solar cookers both in the Sacramento area and beyond, teaching many in Sacramento including Thais Thomas who in turn taught Clark and Eleanor Shimeall (who wrote a still-popular cookbook). Bob Larson was giving workshops on building solar water heaters.
1979 The Organization of African Unity held the 1st of 7 sessions on New, Renewable and Solar Energies. The most recent was in 2000 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Dr. Metcalf, with student Marshall Longvin documented water pasteurization in solar box cookers.
- The governments of India and China expanded national promotion of box cookers and curved concentrators respectively.
- Brace Research Institute, McGill U., Canada, researched and field tested solar cookers.
- Prof. Shyam S. Nandwani in Costa Rica researched solar cookers.
- Tudor Roberts in Zimbabwe taught his students about a variety of solar cookers he himself made and used.
- Box cookers were distributed to 20,000 Afghan refugees in Pakistan by SERVE (Serving emergency Relief and Vocational Enterprises). Types included hole-in-ground cookers.
- 1st major media in U.S.: ‘81 the national Christian Science Monitor newspaper featured Bob Metcalf.
- Heather Gurley Larson wrote first U.S. solar cookbook, Solar Cooking Naturally, in ’83.
- Metcalf and Fred Barrett at USDA designed prototypes of the WAPI. In ’84 Metcalf published his 1st solar water pasteurizing article, and in ’85 his 9-page instructions for building solar box cookers.
- ULOG was started by Ulrich and Lisel Oehler to promote box and parabolic cookers in many countries.
- Bill and Thelma Rogers began weekly workshops for people to build their own solar cookers in a West Sacramento senior center. These continued for about 10 years.
- With Kerr-Cole instructions, solar cookers were built in Kitui, Kenya in ‘85.
1986 The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that ¼ of humanity suffers fuelwood shortages and predicted that by 2000 scarcities would affect ½. Eleanor and Clark Shimeall taught Bev Blum to make cookers and suggested that someone should share this know-how with women in fuel-scarce parts of the world.
1987 Bob Metcalf, Bill Sperber and Aaron Zazueta introduced solar cookers in the Bolivian Altiplano to Aymaran Indians, through Meals for Millions and sponsored by Pillsbury Company. This was the first of many, many trips by Bob (see list below) Bev met with Barbara Kerr and Sherry Cole in AZ, and, with Dr. Anne Funkhouser, met Bob Metcalf and drafted a case for creating an organization about the same time Dave Martin independently contacted Kerr and Cole about promoting solar cookers in underdeveloped areas.
SOLAR (BOX) COOKERS INTERNATIONAL’s FIRST 13 YEARS IN A NUTSHELL followed by yearly highlights 1987– 1993 Solar Box Cookers International Focused on Sacramento and Latin America 1st international Conference and 2 Latin America region conferences 1st newsletters, educational tools, leaders guides 1st query-response and info-exchange to pool experiences from hundreds of independent promoters 1st field projects (3 years) in Belize and Honduras 1st field evaluations and surveys in 7 countries, revealing similar uptake and fuel savings in diverse settings 2 cardboard box cookers variations mass produced – ‘Joe On’ and Foldable Kits 2 water-resistant ‘fluteboard’ box models tested in 4 countries 1st WAPIs (water pasteurization indicators) Name change in 1993 1994 – 1999 Solar Cookers International Shift focus to Africa and longer-term field projects Developed and mass produced CooKits in 3 countries 1st refugee projects – partnering with UNHCR, German GTZ and Luth. World Fed. 1st micro-enterprise projects – partnering in Zimbabwe with UNESCO, gov’t. Energy Ministry and U. of Zimbabwe Dev. Tech. Center and in Kenya with Nyakach Community Development Association (NYACODA) 1st independent evaluations documenting fuel savings, acceptance and usefulness, and effectiveness of SCI participative introduction strategies 2 more international conferences, 3 more regional conferences, 2 regional networks – Kenya – KESONET (became SOLARNET) & Latin America (RECOSOL) 1st website – created and maintained to this day by Tom Sponheim.
S(B)CI’s YEARLY HIGHLIGHTS are sorted by Organization milestones Major events Education tools, services & publicity Major field projects Independent events SBCI HIGHLIGHTS OF 1987, starting July 11 1st MEETINGS: Two meetings to create Solar Box Cookers International were held at the U. of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, the first on July 11, 1987, the day the world’s population reached 5 billion. FOUNDERS and FOUNDING BOARD 1987: 1st meeting: 16 Founders attended Dr. Joseph Arnaboldi Barbara Blum Bev Blum Georgianna Borgens Wanjiru Sherry Cole Dr. Anne Funkhouser Barbara Kerr, Dave Martin Don Mahlberg Dr. O. Boyd Mathias Dr. Bob Metcalf John Murphy Blaine Pack Margaret Payne Clark and Eleanor Shimmeal 2nd and 3rd meetings: Carmen and Dr. Edwin Pejack Terry Snyder, Atty. Sheri Lewis This group drafted 2-year goals and plan and 3-year proposed budget, adopted the 1st By-laws and applied for nonprofit, tax-exempt status. The 1st ‘OFFICE was half a room at 1823 11th St., Sacramento, for $100/mo. with an 8’ table, 4 folding chairs and access to phone, copier and fax, thanks to Mike Eaton. The 1st DONORS came from the 1st fund-raising mailng to Kerr-Cole customers and lists gathered by Georgiana Borgens. 1st VOLUNTEERS besides the Founders included Lois Schwarze and Don Coan.
EDUCATION TOOLS, SERVICES, PUBLICITY 1ST BROCHURE was produced by volunteers A. Funkhouser and G. Wanjiru (Borgens). D. Martin and J. Murphy drafted strategies for marketing and project site selections. 1st SURVEY gathered feedback from Kerr-Cole box cooker buyers (O Boyd Mathias) 1st VIDEO: Fred Barrett of USDA funded production of Bob Metcalf’S 4 Square Feet of Sunshine video.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: Bob Metcalf, Bill Sperber (Pillsbury Co.) and Aaron Zazueta (Meals for Millions) introduced solar cooking to Aymara Indians in the Bolivian Altiplano. Eleanor Shimeall’s Solar Cookbook was first published. HIGHLIGHTS OF 1988 1st ELECTED BOARD was comprised of 9 Founders, each with a specific title and tasks. 1st President Bev Blum 1st ACTION PLAN included multilingual ed. materials, demos to international ‘nongovernmental organizations’ (INGOs) in the U.S. and elsewhere. Officially incorporated with federal and state tax exemption status. 1st VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Lois Schwarze, honored as 1st volunteer office ‘anchor’ who oversaw response to 4000 orders for “How to Make and Use” 1st ANNUAL MEETING. 253 CHARTER MEMBERS by June 1988 (goal was 200) REVENUES $48,458, including $30,000 in-kind, expenses $45,458. 1st GRANT: $8000 from Pillsbury for improved instructions, How to Make and Use booklet, for cookers and travel to ’89 Pillsbury Conference.
EDUCATION TOOLS: Volunteers produced and mailed 1st 3 newsletters, 1st SBCI ‘plans’ – How to Make and Use a Solar Box Cooker, sent in response to Christian Sci. Monitor feature on Bob Metcalf New brochure by Anne Funkhouser, Spanish materials, Mini-boxes Tyvec patterns for cardboard box cookers SERVICES 1st training of trainers for Sacramento area people, 26 businessmen from Dominican Republic including Malaquias Santana and 9 Humphreys Fellows including Rev. Kontsante Modisenyane from South Africa. 4000 requests for ‘How to make a solar box cooker,’ from a Christian Science Monitor feature of Metcalf were filled by a handful of volunteers coordinated by Lois Schwarze and Dave Martin (often peeling stamps off too-small self-addressed envelopes and re-addressing larger ones). 1st international info-exchange with promoters worldwide. 1st training to include water pasteurizing (Metcalf and John Murphy in Baja, Mexico). SBCI also sent 10 Eco-cookers to La Piedad, Mexico, with volunteer trainers Metcalf, Mary Brewer, Rick Blodgett and Robb Robel. PUBLICITY: The Sacramento Union featured Bill and Thelma Rogers and brought 100 info requests; Barbara Jodry authored an article in a Sacto. paper; Mary Brewer was on local TV about Mexico trip; Bob Metcalf spoke and Dave Martin exhibited at the RETSIE Global Energy Society Conf. on Energy for Africa, Santa Clara, CA; Metcalf was interviewed on UN radio and Saudi Gazette.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: Bob Metcalf’s 1st training that included hands-on making of cookers was with Plan International and the Kerr-type box cooker in Guatemala. A follow-up visit months later found 57 families solar cooking regularly. As a UN consultant he trained with Dr. Hannah Daoud of UNFAO in Djibouti and for World Food Day in Italy. Other: SBCI trainee in South Africa, Rev. Kontsante Modisenyane, translated “How to –“ into several dialects and introduced in South Africa, Botswana and Lesotho. Many church missions in Haiti including Founder Arnaboldi’s with Heifer International. D. Martin took 2 cookers to TOOL in Netherlands and Schweitzer Ecol Center, Switzerland for Burkina Faso. A 3rd solar cookbook by Halacys appeared.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1989
President Dave Martin 1st REAL OFFICE at 1724 11th St., Sacramento for $750/mo. 1st PAID STAFF: Bev Blum volunteered 6 months as a part-time Director, then was hired as a part-time Exec. Director. G. Borgens (Wanjiru) was 1st part-time assistant 1st THINK TANK led by Aaron Zazueta (Freedom from Hunger), Ray Sylvester (U. of Pacific) and Bill Sperber (Pillsbury) and 1st BOARD RETREAT produced a 1st statement of principles and a 10-year Plan and goal to reach 2.4 billion people with info by 2000. Don Coan was 1989 Volunteer of the Year for his endless office work, workshops and demos as well as his own work in Central America. REVENUES: $92,466 including $15,820 in-kind (goal $70,000) and expenses $80,542. 2nd GRANT: $20,000 from W. Alton Jones Foundation. The Lutheran Bible School in Hershey, PA, donated $470 so we sent solar cookers to B. Kinteh in Gambia, MNES Kerala in India, Virgin Islands Environmental Group and Mexico Girl Scouts.
MAJOR EVENTS 1ST CONFERENCE in DC on Strategies for Promoting Energy Efficient Cooking in Developing Countries, co-sponsored with Pillsbury (Sperber +), World Resources Inst. (Tom Fox), USAID and InterAction. Speakers included Metcalf, Barbara Knudson, Norge Jerome, Jessica Matthews (WRI) and Willem Floor, who represented persistent biases based on early solar cooker failures.
EDUCATION TOOLS, Developed criteria for field projects site selection, time frames and budgets and began seeking partners. Ed Pejack and Paul Mellersh researched best ‘found’ materials for box insulations. NEW PUBLICATIONS: new brochures, a posters display with PVC pipe, the 1st Handbook, “How to” translated to Arabic, SERVICES 1st FIELD TRAINING WITH PARTNERS: Dave Martin trained 200 in Belize through Belize Enterprise for Sustainable Technology (BEST) and Katalysis. ‘HOW TO MAKE AND USE’ WORKSHOPS in Sacramento trained 200 from 27 countries PROFESSIONAL NEWSLETTER by volunteer Mark Rothman of IMPACT Publications, Oregon. His successor, Dave Ruppe, continues volunteering this service today. INFO EXCHANGE: Responded to 13,000 inquiries and added hundreds of independent promoters to our info-exchange network. PUBLICITY: Worldwatch Magazine, OMNI Magazine, Sierra Club newsletter, ABC TV Home Show, exhibit at the Assoc. of Women in Development (AWID) Conference in DC.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: Metcalf researched Colilert water testing applications with solar pasteurization, trained U.S. EPA staff; traveled to Sierra Leone with Southern U. in Louisana (Dr. Barbara Carpenter); also to Zimbabwe with Plan International and to Egypt, both Yemens, and Somalia with UNFAO (Hanna Daoud). Tom Sponheim and Mark Aalfs formed Solar Box Cookers Northwest. Barbara Kerr introduced solar cookers in Navajo nation; Blum trained gov’t nutritionists in Lesotho through Farmer-to-Farmer, Lapis/ USAID. We learned of major projects in India and China. Dr. Bill Lankford’s CASEP in Central America and Creamers in Nicaragua, where people crossed borders illegally to learn about solar cookers because of land mines in wood-gathering areas.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1990 President Bob Metcalf GOAL REVISED: by 2000 5% of 2.4 billion people, or 25 million households would be using solar cookers GEOGRAPHIC FOCUS: Sacramento, Mexico, Central America & Caribbean Revised Bylaws, adopted Personnel Policies and Nominating Committee guides and updated Advisory Board. 2nd Think Tank and workshops– speakers: Norge Jerome, Davida Coady, Barby Pulliam, and Isaac Ferguson. 1990 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Retired biology prof. Elinor Benes for countless office hours New staff (all part-time): Kevin (Ramon) Coyle for fundraising, Bonnie Parmar as receptionist, Paul Barth for research, Maria Chacon for translations, and interns Maria Gonzalez (Joe On patterns), Rodil San Mateo (bibliography) and Kim Victorine (foldable box cooker production and assembly). REVENUES: $175,178, including $28,849 donations and $35,270 in-kind, expenses $153,827. Largest donation, $1000 to send plans to 70 Peace Corps ‘libraries’ worldwide; 3 grants included a 3-year grant of $150,000 from Thrasher Research Foundation (thanks to Rick Blodgett and Isaac Ferguson) to continue BEST’s field project in Belize and start in Honduras and measure acceptance, W. Alton Jones Foundation’s 2nd grant to SBCI - $15,000, and $20,000 from Education Foundation to produce foldable box cookers. We contracted with Asay & Farrimond ($2000) who (unsuccessfully) sought grants for SBCI.
EDUCATION TOOLS A foldable, teaching model box cooker was developed and mass produced improved poster-style “How to –“ 60-page Leaders Manual, “Spreading Solar Cooking” (Blum) Cutaway cookers for construction workshops (Mellersh), Slides sets for speakers (Metcalf). 1st TRANSLATIONS of “How to—“ by volunteer into Chinese, Farsi and Sesotho 1st newsletter survey gathered use info from 548 solar cooks. SERVICES First email info responses Speakers Bureau (Georgianna Borgens Wanjiru, Kofi Kondwani, Paul Barth, Rick Blodgett, Don Coan, Mary & Ted Feldman, Ila Lewis, Beth Luna, Dave Martin, Paul Mellersh, Bob Metcalf, Jeanne-Marie Moore, Irene & Roger Smith, Boyd Mathias, Bob McAdams, Randy Smith, Doran Smout, Phyllis Woodbury, Julius Davis, S. Robinson, Farlu Kaufman, Bev Russell) filled many speaking requests. 1st Sacramento Solarques PUBLICITY Metcalf spoke at Global Forum on Environment and Development in Moscow; exhibited at Earthtech in DC with Barrett and other DC volunteers; was commended by Mayor Ann Rudin and the Sacramento City Council. Articles in Solar Today, World Watch Inst., New York Times, Times of London, and a PGE bill insert on solar cookers, prompting thousands of info requests SBCI made first contacts with U.N. agencies UNDP, World Food Program, UNICEF, UN Evir. Program, UNIFEM, INSTRAW, DPI-NGOs, also USAID International Nutritionists Network Exchange (N. Jerome), Rwandan and Lesotho Embassies, and INGOs: CARE, New Forests Project, AfriCare, Int’l Women’s Tribunal, PACT, Partners in the Americas, VITA, (Blum and Metcalf).
INDEPENDENT NEWS: Metcalf published a paper on microbiology of pasteurization Barbara Kerr published her book, Expanding World of Solar Box Cooker. T. Sponheim started SBC Northwest bimonthly Journal. Arnaboldi continued work in Haiti with Heifer Int’l, J. Shumaker, World Christian Relief Fund & Peace Corps. Avinashilingam U. researched solar cookers nutrients retention in India (Dr. Devadas); Manila Women in Philippines (Leonarda Camancho) were active promoters; Didi Contractor & GTZ’s Indo-German Dhouladar Project in India was making large mud/bamboo patio ovens.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1991 President Bob Metcalf New STAFF (all part-time): Veronica Perez for reception and bookkeeping, Aaron DeRuntz as volunteer coordinator; Intern Randy Smith, intern, compared cookers’ performance. 1991 VOLUNTEERS OF THE YEAR: Irene Smith and Barbara Jodry for extensive organizing the first Solarbration and great publicity 3rd Think Tank/4th Annual Meeting/Dinner – Tom Lawand and SMUD’s Donald Freeman were honored with Bright Future awards Contest for 1st LOGO – winner was Rick Blodgett’s son, ___. REVENUES: $254,362 (budget $207,000), inc. $97,907 in donations and in-kind; $60,000 2nd year Thrasher Grant and $20,000 from Rockefeller/Am. Cons. Fund/Children’s Earth Fund project to upgrade ed. materials. Sought corporate donations.
MAJOR EVENTS 1st SOLARBRATION: sponsors – SMUD, Syufy Theaters (promo briefs in theaters), Raleys; included Schools Day, Seniors Day, Service Day, Solarque at Coloma Community Center and Capitol Cook-Off; stores demos chair Jeanne-Marie Moore, libraries Julius Davis, Bob Metcalf & Pat Mahlberg on local TV. Planning began for SBCI’s 1st World Conference in 1992, hosted by Univ. of the Pacific (Ed Pejack).
EDUCATION TOOLS Revised “How to—“ plans and Leaders Manual and translated to French, Spanish and Arabic Created lesson plans and language-free flip charts, Spanish version of Bright Future video; Bibliography of published and unpublished papers (R. San Mateo); ‘Multipliers’ insert added to Newsletter Sales included 18,000 Plans, 1000 Leaders Manuals, 650 Foldable cookers and 750 Joe On kits 1st WAPI mass production Also bumper stickers, sun visors, t-shirts, buttons SERVICES SHOWCASE SACRAMENTO as a ‘lab’ for community promotion by volunteers Dave Martin, Henry & Ursula Stanton, Lee Adair, Anna Ward, Tom DuHain, Lori Bodenhammer The Speakers Bureau gave 236 public presentations and reached 5035 people; Workshops, teacher trainings, cookers loans and exhibits at other events targeted media, schools, libraries and low-income areas Promoters info-exchange network now included 300 groups and individuals worldwide; the 20 top solar cooker promoter agencies were all in Asia. PUBLICITY Metcalf attended Geneva UNEP and Children’s Earth Fund meetings, sponsored by American Conservation Association (Larry Rockefeller) North-South Connection (Snelgrove), connected Board Member Margot Aguilar in Mexico with Latin businesses.
LATIN AMERICAN FIELD PROJECT (Thrasher Foundation) began in Belize and Honduras with 3 partners: Katalysis (Jerry Hildebrand & Karie Brown), Belize Enterprise for Sustained Technology (B.E.S.T., Carlos Santos) and Organizacion de Desarrollo Empresarial Femenino (O.D.E.F, a women’s village banking program in San Pedro Sula, Honduras.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: Metcalf visited Sierra Leone for a 2-year follow-up and found 4/5 say food tastes better and want to own solar cookers; as a UN Sudano-Sahel consultant he provided training in Burkina Faso, Mali and Mauritania. Germany’s Natur Magazine pictured Metcalf on its cover among 100 most important men in the world’s future. Kiwanis built 30 cookers to celebrate 30 years; NorCal Boy Scouts built teaching kits for BYOBox workshops. Paul Funk helped develop basket and woven solar cookers in Tanzania Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) produced and distributed solar cook books to its customers and sponsored promotion in schools thanks to Harvey Greer;
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1992 President Bob Metcalf 5-year Celebration 1992 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Jeanne-Marie Moore for leadership organizing Solarbration and for extensive office work and trainings for blind. Blind herself, she inspires us all. Award from Die Twaalf Ambachten, Netherlands, through Gerri de Graaf & Dave Martin Children’s Earth Fund/SBCI’s proposal for international schools exchanges about solar cooking led only briefly to SBCI’s inclusion in Gorbachov’s new Green Cross plans An extensive grant proposal for training in Sahel countries was developed with UNDP/GEF staff after great encouragement from them, but was rejected by higher policy makers. Revenues:
MAJOR EVENTS 1st INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE held at Univ. of Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA brought 150 from 18 countries. Waafas Ofosu Amaah and Karim Ahmed were featured speakers 2nd SOLARBRATION immediately followed the Conference and included 2nd Solar Cook-out on the State Capitol lawn; Irene & Roger Smith videoed. The SBCI exhibit at the Global Forum at the Rio Environmental Summit in Brazil, was very popular, staffed 11 hours a day for 12 days by Bob Metcalf, Don Coan, Barbara Jodry, Barbara Knudson, Bob Larson, May d’Marie. We produced brochures in Portuguese, Spanish and French.
EDUCATION TOOLS: 1st CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (Ed Pejack) Newsletters, 6th edition of ‘How to—‘, a poster annual report For foldable cookers, a switch from cardboard to metal trays and final production. Pride Industries took over assembly and mailing. SURVEY OF PROMOTERS through the newsletter, 58 respondees described needs and promotion strategies SERVICES Began dialog with UNESCO Science chief Boris Berkovski, who requested info via Roma Stibravy, considering solar cookers for the U.N. World Solar Summit” (see 1996). PUBLICITY UNEP Women’s Conf. in Florida solar cooker leaders from 6 countries thanks to AWID’s Waafas Ofuso-Amaah: Didi Contractor (India), Vilma Soto(Costa Rica), Claudett Wilmot (Jamaica), also Fitri Aini (Indonesia), Nandini Gandhi (India), Leonarda Camacho (Philippines), Barbara Knudson and Bev Blum, USA. SBCI brought them together for a breakfast meeting. Presentation at World Resources Institute (WRI) (B. Metcalf, B. Blum, K. Ahmed) Articles in Audubon Magazine, International Rotarian, San Francisco Examiner
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS Thrasher Project year two in Belize and Honduras included multiple workshops and demos and surveys. Edie Farwell trained surveyors; Karie Brown coordinated for Katalysis. With smaller surveys by contract in Zimbabwe, Ecuador, Chile, and Guatemala, 800 surveys from 7 countries confirmed acceptance, high satisfaction and consistent, gradual use increase over the 1st 3 years.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: Metcalf trained volunteers from 7 countries in Kenya for Trickle Up and African Medical Relief Fund (AMREF). Dan Kammen conducted an Earthwatch Project in Kenya. Barby Pulliam actively trained Girl Guides worldwide and developed many excellent training methods and tools.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1993 President Bob Metcalf NAME CHANGE – dropped ‘Box’ from name after much Board debate, becoming Solar Cookers International 1993 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Randy Smith honored at 6th Annual Dinner ENDOWMENT gift of $25,000 in memory of Mary Euwer by daughters Eleanor Shimeall and Ellie Norton 65 organizational members 1st consultative status with U.N. REVENUES: $248,700, incl. $111,531 in donations and in-kind, $63,500 grant (Thrasher). Launched an Africa Fund Campaign for future projects in Africa.
MAJOR EVENTS 1st LATIN AMERICAN CONFERENCE in Honduras (Thrasher, co-sponsor UNESCO), hosted by ODEF gathered 90 leaders from 14 countries 1st LATIN AMERICAN NETWORK, Red Cosinas Solares (RECOSOL) was formed under leadership of Pedro Serrano, Chile Planning began for 2nd Int’l Conference in ’94 in Costa Rica, hosted by Shyam Nandwani.
EDUCATION TOOLS 1st International Directory of 500 solar cooker experts Fun with the Sun Teachers Guide (B. Larson & Heather Gurley) and Spanish translation, Teachers Kit, sun visors, aprons, and 7th edition of ‘How to—‘ plans Field surveys results were analyzed and Trends in Solar Cooking summarized 100+ promoters’ experience. Assembly of box cooker lids was outsourced. Field tests of moisture-resistant cookers in Chile, Ecuador, Belize & Honduras concluded Thrasher Project (below). Tested were J. Campbell‘s ‘Bluebird Box’ and P. Funk’s slant box with no reflector. Both were satisfactory but considered expensive ($20, 40 respectively if mass produced).
PUBLICITY California State Fair booth co-sponsored by SMUD, dozens of volunteers for 10 days and coordinated by Metcalf. Earth Fund and Nickelodeon sponsored a Kids World Council at Disneyworld. Bob Larson, Virginia Heather Gurley, Don Coan & Barbara Jodry tried to solar cook lasagna for 80 in iffy weather. Al Gore admired a solar cooker, and afterwards SCI corresponded with 27 schools in 15 countries. The Interdisciplinary Congress on Women in Costa Rica included SCI exhibit and presentations (B. Knudson, B. Blum) Smithsonian Natural History Museum featured solar cookers.
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS The Thrasher Project ended in Belize and Honduras with final Thrasher surveys, cooker field tests, 1st Latin Conference and final report concluding that Central American climates are often sub-optimum for solar cooking and fuel shortages are not yet acute.
- Metcalf trained Trickle Up volunteers in Nepal from 10 Asian countries
- The European Committee for Solar Cooking Research conducted large comparative performance tests of many solar cookers, repeating in 1995.
- Villa Seca Solar Village in Chile now attracts tourists with its 200 solar-cooking households, a solar restaurant and solar bakery (Guzman, Serrano)
- Allart Ligtenberg started Nepal projects
- PC Barbara Ross trained Amagoro Women’s Group including future SCI trainers Faustine Odaba and Everlyne Juma
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1994 President Clark Shimeall 1994 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR Mary Frank, distinguished artist and tireless advocate solar cooks on the roof of her NY loft and has recruited many NY donors and volunteers. Board Policies updated to add short-term strategies to temporarily conduct 5-10 multi-year field projects to achieve and thoroughly document self-sustainability to gain evidence needed to persuade policy makers, and Kenya chosen for 1st African project. REVENUES: $216,694 with $151,485 donations, including African Fund Campaign which matched $20,000 Setzer Grant with $36,480 donations SCI major Events 2nd WORLD CONFERENCE, hosted by Dr. Shyam Nandwani at Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica 1st KENYA CONFERENCE, hosted by Kenya Girl Guides (Honorine Kiplegat, Wamuyu Wachiru), followed by a teachers’ workshop (below) and a meeting with Kenyan NGOs
EDUCATION TOOLS CooKit prototype invented by Roger Bernard, France, and Barbara Kerr added plastic bag in place of glass bowl. She quickly called, saying, “My pot of beans boiled over, making a big mess. This really cooks!” Refinements by J. Campbell, E. Pejack, B. Blum and others led to the mass-produced Cookit, at last a realistic tool for the world’s poorest families. 8th Edition of “How to“ Plans, revised to add Cookit International Directory of solar cooker promoters produced. SERVICES 1st Kenyan teachers’ workshop hosted by Trans World Radio (Clive Wafuko) 20 cookers sent to overseas schools through Children’s Earth Fund (Annie Brody, L. Rockefeller) 1st UNESCO contact re solar cookers for the World Solar Summit by Sci Dir. Boris Berkovski 1st Kenyan network (KESONET) formed with Kenyan solar cooker-promoting agencies, Inst. for Cultural Affairs (Elizabeth Castiglioni), TransWorld Radio (Clive Wafuko) and Kenyatta University (Peter Kariuki). KESONET later evolved into SOLARNET, dominated by solar photovoltaics organizations. PUBLICITY 2nd California State Fair exhibit with SMUD with dozens of volunteers.
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS KENYA: Board members Barbara Knudson and Norge Jerome explored partnerships and gathered advice from many Kenyan agencies. Lutheran World Federation (LWF) agreed to let SCI test CooKit usefulness and durability in Kakuma Refugee Camp. Knudson visited the camp to prepare for a 1995 launch.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1995 President Clark Shimeall Planning started for 3rd International conference in Coimbatore, India, 1997, invited by Vice Chancellor Rajammal Devadas of Avinashalingam Deemed U. 1995 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Roger Bernard (France) retired professor. He invented the 1st ‘panel’ cooker that SCI volunteers evolved into SCI’s CooKit ORDER OF EXCELLENCE was created to honor Barbara Kerr and Sherry Cole. REVENUES: $284,821; $185,400 in donations from 1200 members included Doug Augustine’s gift of $50,000 and Barbara Kerr’s $45,000 property deed gift matched with $65,000 in other donations for the Sherry Cole Fund; $75,000 total in grants from Atkinson, Cottonwood, Latter Day Saints Humanitarian Fund, Setzer and the Jules and Doris Stein Foundations; sales revenues $17,548; expenses $228,689.
EVENTS 2nd KENYA CONFERENCE, held in Kakamega, hosted by RETEC Energy Center (David Osotsi): 55 attendees included 3 refugees and 1 staff from Kakuma Camp. Two teachers workshops organized by Osotsi and James Mindo trained 89 teachers.
EDUCATION TOOLS CooKit mass produced in Kenya (Pressmasters). These lasted 2 years on average. 1st Solar Cooker Review, from merger of SBC Northwest Journal (Sponheim) and SCI’s Newsletter , circ. 7000 in 140 countries. 9th edition of “How to—“ Checklist for predicting site-specific usefulness of solar cookers Improved teachers’ training materials Tested Kenyan CooKits and plastic bags against US ones. SERVICES 1st solar cookers website created by volunteer Tom Sponheim: accessone.com/~sbcn/index.htm RECOSOL, the Latin Region Network, produced 6 Spanish newsletters and gave workshops in several countries (Pedro Serrano) with small, matching grant from SCI. SOLARNET, the Kenyan Network, produced several newsletters PUBLICITY Barbara Knudson and Kakuma refugee Gladys Ngaruye represented SCI at a U.N. Environmental Program meeting. 3rd/last Cal. State Fair booth co-sponsored by SMUD, dozens of volunteers for 10 days and coordinated by Metcalf. Volunteer Randy Smith built a handsome display structure. Exhibit at NGO Forum on Women in Beijing (Barby Pulliam et al) Die Zeit, Germany, reported on the Kakuma project.
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS (See Field Project summaries for more details.) KENYA 1st REFUGEE PROJECT at Kakuma Camp in northwest Kenya began with Lutheran World Federation and UNHCR; B. Knudson, Jay Campbell, Faustine Odaba & B. Blum trained 70 refugee families and from these 16 refugee women became trainers, coordinated by refugee Gladys Ngaruye; 2000+ CooKits were distributed with training. Visits every few months by Knudson, Blum and Odaba found rapid uptake and usage. 2nd REFUGEE PROJECT at three Dadaab camps in eastern Kenya., at the urging of UNHCR and partnering with the German aid agency, GTZ, B. Knudson did a preparatory visit. Kakuma refugee Gladys Ngaruye, Bob Metcalf, and B. Blum trained GTZ stove trainers. UNHCR also offered a grant for a similar project in ETHIOPIA. UNESCO invited a proposal for 1000 CooKits and training for ZIMBABWE for the World Solar Forum in ’96.
INDEPENDENT NEWS Linda Hayward’s Sacramento 5th grade class produced solar cakes weekly for a School Solar Cake Lottery that eventually reached all that school’s classes.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1996 President John Collentine New office, 1919 21st Street, Sacramento Staff grew to 4: Patt Hull and Dr. Mahnaz Saremi joined Blum and Coyle 1996 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Louise Meyer for trainings in Ethiopia, Kenya, Zimbabwe and Istanbul as well as her own work in western Africa and advocacy in DC. Gained revised consultative status with the U.N. Joined InterAction and registered with USAID for possible fund-seeking Organized International (India) and Latin (Ecuador) Conferences for ‘97 REVENUES: $366,571 including $184,650 in donations with $52,350 for Africa Fund, $30,000 UNESCO grant for 1000 CooKits and training for Zimbabwe; UNHCR grant for Ethiopian refugee project
EDUCATION TOOLS CooKits: 1st mass production of wax-backed CooKits in Zimbabwe – lasted 3 years on average; Plastic laminate added to Kenya CooKits. Sales of U.S. foldable cookers was turned over to Michael Brown, but he ceased a year later. A new type of WAPI, SafWat, a bi-metal disk designed by Roland Saye and produced with Bean Foundation grant; a few rusted at the edges after long use, so we later discontinued sales, though they remain especially useful for vision-impaired. Field Guide for introducing solar cookers in Refugee Camps Improved Teachers Kit, Video of Kakuma and Dadaab projects, Letters from Kenya, featuring trainer Barbara Knudson and narrated by Wendy vanden Heuval PUBLICITY The UN World Solar Summit in Zimbabwe featured exhibits and demonstrations by Zimbabwe solar cooker trainers from SCI’s UNESCO project At the U.N. Habitat II Conference in Istanbul Louise Meyer, Deling Wang and B. Blum provided presentations, an exhibit, and contributions to an NGOs Statement on Household Energy. Other publicity included Voice of America and Washington Post.
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS ZIMBABWE: The UNESCO project was planned by 30 Zim. agencies with SCI volunteers Virginie Mitchem and Linda Helm Krapf and B. Blum. UNESCO pledged 5 year’s support and SCI partnered with Development Technical Center (DTC) at the U. of Zimbabwe (Tungamirai Rukuni), Zim. gov’t Dept. of Energy (Chigwada) and Hlekweni Training Center (Dube). 7 U.S. volunteers (Patt Hull, Bob Larson, Bob Metcalf, John Mitchem, Ed Pejack, Mahnaz Saremi, Louise Meyer, Barby Pulliam), Faustine Odaba (Kenya) and 2 solar cooks from PLAN Mutare, Zim. (Mary Chadambuka & __) trained 100 pilot families and 20 trainers in Ntabazinduna near Bulawayo and Epworth near Harare in time for the World Solar Summit. KENYA: SCI’s 1st independent evaluation in Kakuma by Musa Njoka found that 2/3 of families used 3x week on average. In DADAAB Hundreds of families that had earned cookers by nurturing 20 trees for 3 months waited months for training and cookers because GTZ trainers were backlogged, so SCI paid for 16 more trainers chosen from Dadaab refugee enthusiastic solar cooks and Gladys Ngaruye trained them. ETHIOPIA: Jay Campbell and Louise Meyer made a preparatory trip to Aisha Refugee Camp in Ethiopia
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1997 President John Collentine 10th Anniversary celebration New staff Kevin Porter as Office Manager and Virginia Callaghan as Development Coordinator 1997 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR: Barby Pulliam for worldwide training of thousands of Girl Guides to teach their communities how to make and use solar cookers. ORDER OF EXCELLENCE honored Bob Metcalf for 2 decades of tireless education, research, promotion and worldwide training and consultation on solar cooking and water pasteurizing. New logo was donated by Brian Collentine Board Policies added priority target countries and various national standards for NGO fund-raising, publicity and programs. Annual Plans prioritized targets for advocacy: UNDP, UNICEF, UNIFEM, UNEP, CARE Int’l, and Int’l Rescue Committee. REVENUES: $314,053; donations $191,931; $85,671 in grants from Compton, Alternative Gifts International, Rausing Family Trust and Stein foundations; and sales $36,451
Events 3rd INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE, Coimbatore, India, was hosted by Vice Chancellor Dr. Rajammal Devadas, Avinashalingam Deemed U. and drew 161 people from 6 continents 2nd LATIN AMERICAN CONFERENCE, hosted by Prof. Rodrigo Carpio, Cuenca Ecuador, included 66 participants from 14 countries. Don Coan was 1 of 23 presenters.
EDUCATION TOOLS UNESCO used SCI’s Case for Solar Cooking as its basis for announcing a 5-year U.N. World Solar Cooking Program, 1996-2005 was approved by the UN General Assembly in 1998. (The ‘Program’ began and ended with the Varese Conference in 1999). Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference, produced by Avinashilingam U. List of 30 best countries for solar cooking, based on climate, fuel scarcity, deforestation, population, etc. SCI Field Guide, including methods for periodic monitoring and evaluations. Newsletter Solar Cooker Review reaches 8000 supporters and promoters worldwide. Tested Ethiopian-made CooKits (not durable) and plastic bags (equal to Kenya’s), and field tested possibly more durable plastic ‘cuffs’ – not useful. SERVICES Volunteer training for future field projects Provided 100 CooKits to Avinashilingam U. to field test for the Indian Ministry of Nonconventional Energies Responded to a large volume of individual correspondence and info-exchange Supported meeting of CASEP (Central American Solar Energy Programs) Participated in UNHCR Partners Conference on Environmental Management, Geneva. PUBLICITY SCI was one of 30 NGOs worldwide invited to exhibit at the U.N.’s Sustainable Development in Action Exhibit for the U.N. General Assembly GASS Rio +5’ in NY. Metcalf spoke to Kofi Annan and wife and media, assisted by several NY-area volunteers. At a Micro-credit Summit in DC, Louise Meyer represented SCI. Media coverage included BBC, Osgood Files, Voice of America and Sacramento Bee, Solar Today magazine, and International Rotarian.
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS KENYA Kakuma Project served 1500 more families despite LWF delays in supplies transport; 3-year CooKits are still useful and we hoped to finish but camp grew by 15,000 more refugees Dadaab Project: The rest of SCI’s 2000 promised CooKits were distributed with training, but major floods destroyed many of them, forced refugees to relocate, and cut off roads to the camps. Trainers trained 5000 families, but GTZ, our implementing partner, provided only 400 additional CooKits due to budget problems and unexpectedly departed from the camp. This and a sudden decision by USAID to fund (inadequate) wood distribution for 3 years led SCI to suspend this project (temporarily, we hoped). ETHIOPIA: The Aisha Refugee Project started with UNHCR and ARRA (Ethiopian government refugee administrators) as partners. Trainers Faustine Odaba, volunteer Louise Meyer and B. Blum trained 50 pilot families, then 18 trainers were selected from the most enthusiastic solar cooks. This year 550 families began solar cooking and the local coordinator was UNHCR consultant Amina Ahmed. Mid-year, plastic bags were withheld for 6 months by an HCR staff, but HCR still proceeded with an evaluation before the 1st anniversary (see 1998). ZIMBABWE: UNESCO funds of $100,000 disappeared in the Zim. government, but DTC continued with minimal support from SCI to fund a full-time coordinator, Rejoice. Rotary International and Bulawayo supported the Bulawayo part for several more years. About 500 more families began solar cooking this year, and several thousand in the followi ng years.
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1998
President Norge Jerome 1st regional office: SCI Eastern Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, staffed by Owino New staff: Margaret Owino as Eastern Africa Director, Refugee Shadrack Alumai and non-refugee Virginia to coordinate Kakuma Program in Kenya, and Virginia Callaghan and Kevin Porter in the US as Fund Raiser and Office Manager respectively 1998 VOLUNTEER OF THE YEAR was Barbara Knudson, for her extensive field work in SCI’s projects in Kenya and Zimbabwe as pre-project negotiator, trainer, monitor and evaluator, as well as writings, presentations in addition to 6 years on the Board of Directors REVENUES: $384,523 (budget $348,000); included donations $238,000 from 1700 donors; foundation support of $106,376 from Alternative Gifts Int’l, Compton, Goldman, Greenville, New Earth, Rausing and Setzer. Friends of Founders Clark and Eleanor Shimeall donated $23,700 to establish a Special Response Fund in their name. SCI now has 4 mo. operating reserve.
PUBLICITY: A Cookit was featured in Home Power Magazine and by Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum, NY, in its “Under the Sun: An Outdoor Exhibition of Light.”
LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS KAKUMA: 4400 CooKits distributed with training by 30 trainers – a 50% increase over previous year, bringing total to date to about 8000 but the camp added 15,000 more refugees from both Somalia and Sudan. B. Knudson & Bill Lankford measured fuel savings of ¼ - ½ -even though camp distribution was less than 1/3 of an amount needed to cook their meager rations. There were ongoing logistics difficulties in transporting supplies. LWF agreed to take over management and provide replacement supplies ongoing. When that failed SCI added a non-refugee Kakuma staff, Virginia, to work with the 36 trainers and Shadrack and seek a partnership with GTZ’s new tree-planting program. AISHA: Total Cookits distributed with training reached 2000. HCR’s independent evaluation after 11 months found wide and frequent usage, high satisfaction and significant fuel savings, but criticized the extensive initial education required. HCR agreed that SCI could fund future follow up and efforts to initiate Ethiopian production of CooKits. SCI also presented full evidence that polyester bags are not toxic, but also taught refugees to recycle tattered bags into ropes, baskets, etc., and eventually burn them as clean fuel. Dr. Ed Pejack worked with trainers in Kakuma and Aisha toward possible local production with (almost nonexistent) local materials for replacements (average life of Kenyan CooKit – 2 to 3 years, in Zimbabwe – 3 years). Several possibilities were tried, but none suitable was found. ZIMBABWE: UNESCO discontinued funds to Zim. gov’t. but DTC elected to continue the Epworth part while Rotary and Girl Guides continued the Bulawayo part.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: UNHCR conducted evaluations of solar cooking projects in Kenya, Ethiopia and Pakistan. David __, private entrepreneur in the U.S. produced and sells flexible CooKits, ‘Sun Toy.’
HIGHLIGHTS OF 1999
President Norge Jerome Staff changes: Exec. Director B. Blum retired in April. John Collentine served as interim, during which Bev completed a fiscal program transition, visited field projects and attended the UNESCO Varese Conference. Terry Grumley was hired in November. Nadir Aden became Aisha Program Director. Plans begin for non-refugee community projects in Kenya Honorary Advisors were updated
EDUCATION TOOLS SERVICES Both tube and bi-metal disk WAPIs were tested for long-term reliability by Barbara Kerr, Shyam Nandwani and Bob Metcalf. Neither rare tube cracks (due to extreme overheating?) or rust on disks reduced their safety (lowered their trigger temp), but SCI discontinued the discs. A ‘State of SCI’ report by Bev summarized trends and shifts in SCI’s first 13 years. It noted that in all but the first refugee field project (Kakuma) we expected to play only a minor ongoing consultative role for our major partners, but soon identified the need for an array of support services not only for consumers and trainers, but for partner agencies themselves. We also noted that of 600+ known independent promoters, most reached only a few hundred families, and quit in disappointment before becoming self-sustaining, adding to widespread certainty that people won’t use them. PUBLICITY UNESCO-sponsored international conference on solar cooking and food processing, Varese, Italy was organized by Science Division Director Boris Berkovski. Speakers included Shyam Nandwani, Bill Lankford, Paul Funk, B. Knudson and Margaret Owino.. It brought together 300 people from 64 countries and was intended to introduce them to potential international funders, but this part fell short. Others LONG-TERM FIELD PROJECTS KAKUMA: a total of 9000 families have been served, including 32 blind refugees, and we worked toward reducing SCI involvement to production of more CooKits. 15,000 new refugees meant that half the camp remains unserved.
- Refugee trainer reps and coordinators from Kakuma (Adele and Nyiel Njok, Shadrack Alumi and Hellen Lipo) and Aisha – (Nadir Asem) met with Blum and Owino in Nairobi.
- ZIMBABWE: DTC hired Christing Mutandwa as the new Project Coordinator.
INDEPENDENT NEWS: The world’s largest solar cooking system has cooked as many as 33,800 meals on a single day, besides boiling 3000 liters of water for tea. It was designed and built by Wolfgang Scheffler and Deepak Gadhia Taleti near Mt. Abu in India. It consists of 84 parabolic mirrors to produce steam for cooking, with 6 subunits which can be operated independently for smaller quantities. It is saving 400 liters of diesel fuel per day.
BOB METCALF’S INTERNATIONAL TRAININGS 1987 Bolivia 1988 Mexico (Baja and La Piedad), Guatemala, Djibouti 1989 Zimbabwe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Yemen, Egypt with FAO 1990 Russia (Global Forum speaker) 1991 Sahel: Burkina Faso, Mali, Mauritania with UNSO 1992 Brazil (Eco Summit), Kenya with Trickle Up 1993 Nepal (Trickle Up) 1994 1995 Kenya 1996 Kenya – Dadaab Refugee Camp 1997 India, Zimbabwe (UNESCO Project) 1998 1999
2001 2002 2003 Kenya 2004 Kenya and Tanzania 2005 Kenya and Tanzania 2006 Kenya and Tanzania
DEVELOPERS OF W.A.P.I.s: polycarbonate tube: Barrett – Metcalf – Pejack – Andreatta – Nepper; bimetal disk – Roland Saye Glass minitube - Solar Solutions (Frank Husson, Roger Murphy)
DEVELOPERS OF COOKIT: Bernard – Kerr – Blum, Campbell and Pejack