The term non-governmental organization (NGO) is used in a variety of ways all over the world and, depending on the context in which it is used, can refer to many different types of organizations. In its broadest sense, a non-governmental organization is one which is not directly part of the structure of Wikipedia:government. Anheier places the number of internationally operating NGOs at 40,000. National numbers are even higher: The Wikipedia:United States has an estimated 2 million NGOs , most of them formed in the past 30 years. Wikipedia:Russia has 400,000 NGOs. Wikipedia:India is estimated to have between 1 and 2 million NGOs. In Wikipedia:Kenya alone, some 240 NGOs come into existence every year.
International non-governmental organizations have a history dating back to at least the mid-nineteenth century. They were important in the anti-slavery movement and the movement for women's suffrage, and reached a peak at the time of the Wikipedia:World Disarmament Conference. However, the phrase "non-governmental organization" only came into popular use with the establishment of the Wikipedia:United Nations Organization in 1945 with provisions in Article 71 of Chapter 10 of the United Nations Charter for a consultative role for organizations which are neither governments nor member states – see Wikipedia:Consultative Status. The definition of "international NGO" (INGO) is first given in resolution 288 (X) of ECOSOC on Wikipedia:February 27, Wikipedia:1950: it is defined as "any international organisation that is not founded by an international treaty". The vital role of NGOs and other "major groups" in Wikipedia:sustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27 of Wikipedia:Agenda 21, leading to intense arrangements for a consultative relationship between the United Nations and non-governmental organizations.
Wikipedia:Globalization during the 20th century gave rise to the importance of NGOs. Many problems could not be solved within a nation. International treaties and international organizations such as the Wikipedia:World Trade Organization were perceived as being too centred on the interests of capitalist enterprises. In an attempt to counterbalance this Wikipedia:trend, NGOs have developed to emphasize humanitarian issues, Wikipedia:developmental aid and Wikipedia:sustainable development. A prominent example of this is the Wikipedia:World Social Forum which is a rival convention to the Wikipedia:World Economic Forum held annually in January in Davos, Wikipedia:Switzerland. The fifth World Social Forum in Wikipedia:Porto Alegre, Wikipedia:Brazil, in January 2005 was attended by representatives from more than 1,000 NGOs.
Apart from 'NGO' often alternative terms are used as for example independent sector, volunteer sector, civil society, grassroots organizations, transnational social movement organizations, private voluntary organizations, self-help organizations and non-state actors (NSAs).
Nongovernmental organizations are a heterogeneous group. A long list of acronyms has developed around the term 'NGO'.
- Wikipedia:INGO stands for international NGO, such as Doctors Without Borders / Médecins Sans Frontières;
- BINGO is short for business-oriented international NGO;
- Wikipedia:ENGO, short for environmental NGO, such as Wikipedia:Global 2000;
- Wikipedia:GONGOs are government-operated NGOs, which may have been set up by governments to look like NGOs in order to qualify for outside aid or promote the interests of the government in question;
- Wikipedia:QUANGOs are quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisations, such as the Wikipedia:International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which is actually not purely an NGO, since its membership is by nation, and each nation is represented by what the ISO Council determines to be the 'most broadly representative' standardization body of a nation. Now, such a body might in fact be a nongovernmental organization--for example, the United States is represented in ISO by the Wikipedia:American National Standards Institute, which is independent of the federal government. However, other countries can be represented by national governmental agencies--this is the trend in Europe.
The primary purpose of an operational NGO is the design and implementation of development-related Wikipedia:projects. One frequently used categorization is the division into 'relief-oriented' or 'development-oriented' organizations; they can also be classified according to whether they stress Wikipedia:service delivery or participation; or whether they are religious or secular; and whether they are more public or private-oriented. Operational NGOs can be Wikipedia:community-based, national or international.
The primary purpose of an Advocacy NGO is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by lobbying, press work and activist events.
Wikipedia:USAID refers to NGOs as private voluntary organizations. However many scholars have argued that this definition is highly problematic as many NGOs are in fact state and corporate funded and managed projects with professional staff.
NGOs exist for a variety of reasons, usually to further the political or social goals of their members or funders. Examples include improving the state of the Wikipedia:natural environment, encouraging the observance of Wikipedia:human rights, improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. However, there are a huge number of such organizations and their goals cover a broad range of political and philosophical positions. This can also easily be applied to private schools and athletic organizations.
NGOs vary in their methods. Some act primarily as lobbyists, while others conduct programs and activities primarily. For instance, an NGO such as Wikipedia:Oxfam, concerned with poverty alleviation, might provide needy people with the equipment and skills to find food and clean Wikipedia:drinking water.
Non-governmental organizations need healthy relationships with the public to meet their goals. Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds and employ standard lobbying techniques with governments. Interest groups may be of political importance because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes. At times NGOs seek to mobilize public support.
Many international NGOs have a consultative status with United Nations agencies relevant to their area of work. As an example, the Wikipedia:Third World Network has a consultative status with the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the Wikipedia:UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). While in 1946, only 41 NGOs had consultative status with the Wikipedia:ECOSOC, by 2003 this number had risen to 3550.
There is an increasing awareness that management techniques are crucial to project success in non-governmental organizations. Generally, non-governmental organizations that are private have either a community or environmental focus. They address varieties of issues such as religion, emergency aid, or humanitarian affairs. They mobilize public support and voluntary contributions for aid; they often have strong links with community groups in developing countries, and they often work in areas where government-to-government aid is not possible. NGOs are accepted as a part of the international relations landscape, and while they influence national and multilateral policy-making, increasingly they are more directly involved in local action.
Two management trends are particularly relevant to NGOs: Wikipedia:diversity management and Wikipedia:participatory management. Diversity management deals with different cultures in an organization. Intercultural problems are prevalent in Northern NGOs which are engaged in developmental activities in the South. Personnel coming from a rich country are faced with a completely different approach of doing things in the target country. A participatory management style is said to be typical of NGOs. It is intricately tied to the concept of a Wikipedia:learning organization: all people within the organization are perceived as sources for knowledge and skills. To develop the organization, individuals have to be able to contribute in the Wikipedia:decision making process and they need to learn.
Not all people working for non-governmental organizations are Wikipedia:volunteers. Paid staff members typically receive lower pay than in the commercial Wikipedia:private sector. Employees are highly committed to the aims and Wikipedia:principles of the Wikipedia:organization. The reasons people volunteer are not necessarily purely altruistic, and can provide immediate benefits for themselves as well as those they serve, including skills, experience, and contacts.
There is some dispute as to whether Wikipedia:expatriates should be sent to developing countries. Frequently this type of personnel is employed to satisfy a Wikipedia:donor who wants to see the supported project managed by someone from an Wikipedia:industrialized country. However, the expertise these employees or volunteers may have can be counterbalanced by a number of factors: the cost of Wikipedia:foreigners is typically higher, they have no grassroot connections in the country they are sent to, and local expertise is often undervalued.
The NGO sector is an important employer in terms of numbers. For example, by the end of 1995, CONCERN worldwide, an international Northern NGO working against poverty, employed 174 expatriates and just over 5,000 national staff working in ten developing countries in Wikipedia:Africa and Wikipedia:Asia, and in Wikipedia:Haiti.
Large NGOs may have annual budgets in the millions of dollars. For instance, the budget of the Wikipedia:American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) was over US$540 million in 1999. Wikipedia:Human Rights Watch spent and received US$21.7 million in 2003 . Funding such large budgets demands significant fundraising efforts on the part of most NGOs. Major sources of NGO funding include Wikipedia:membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and private Wikipedia:donations. Several Wikipedia:EU-grants provide funds accessible to NGOs.
Even though the term "non-governmental organization" implies Wikipedia:independence from governments, some NGOs depend heavily on governments for their funding. A quarter of the US$162 million income in 1998 of the Wikipedia:famine-Wikipedia:relief organization Wikipedia:Oxfam was donated by the British government and the EU. The Christian relief and development organization Wikipedia:World Vision collected US$55 million worth of goods in 1998 from the American government. Wikipedia:Nobel Prize winner Wikipedia:Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) (known in English as Doctors Without Borders) gets 46% of its income from government sources.
Monitoring and control
In a March 2000 report on United Nations Reform priorities, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan wrote in favor of international humanitarian intervention, arguing that the international community has a "right to protect" citizens of the world against ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity. On the heels of the report, the Canadian government launched the Responsibility to Protect Template:PDFlink project, outlining the issue of humanitarian intervention. While the R2P doctrine has wide applications, among the more controversial has been the Canadian government's use of R2P to justify its intervention and support of the coup in Haiti.
Years after R2P, the Wikipedia:World Federalist Movement, an organization which supports "the creation of democratic global structures accountable to the citizens of the world and call for the division of international authority among separate agencies", has launched Responsibility to Protect - Engaging Civil Society (R2PCS). A collaboration between the WFM and the Canadian government, this project aims to bring NGOs into lockstep with the principles outlined under the original R2P project.
Wikipedia:NGO Monitor is a conservative pro-Israel site which aims to promote "critical debate and accountability of human rights NGOs in the Wikipedia:Arab-Wikipedia:Israeli conflict." The organization has successfully conducted campaigns against Oxfam and the Ford Foundation — leading to formal apologies and changes in practice — on the grounds that these organizations are too anti-Israeli.
Wikipedia:NGOWatch is a project of the Wikipedia:American Enterprise Institute which monitors NGOs. The project is primarily a negative analysis of NGOs which are considered to be on the progressive side of the political spectrum.
Wikipedia:Indian NGOs is a portal of over 20,000 NGOs who work with the corporate sector in India. This portal offers insights into how the corporate sector is using NGOs to benefit their program.
In recent years, many large corporations have beefed up their Corporate Social Responsibility departments in an attempt to preempt NGO campaigns against certain corporate practices. As the logic goes, if corporations work with NGOs, NGOs will not work against corporations.
NGOs are not legal entities under Wikipedia:international law, as states are. An exception is the Wikipedia:International Committee of the Red Cross, which is considered a legal entity under international law because it is based on the Wikipedia:Geneva Convention.
Civil society organization
There is a growing movement within the “non”-profit and “non”-government sector to define itself in a more constructive, accurate way. Instead of being defined by “non” words, organizations are suggesting new terminology to describe the sector. The term “civil society organization” (CSO) has been used by a growing number of organizations, such as The Center for the Study of Global Governance.  The term “citizen sector organization” (CSO) has also been advocated to describe the sector — as one of citizens, for citizens. This labels and positions the sector as its own entity, without relying on language used for the government or business sectors.
- Steve W. Witt, ed. Changing Roles of NGOs in the Creation, Storage, and Dissemination of Information in Developing Countries (Saur, 2006). ISBN 3-598-22030-8
- Ann Florini, ed. The Third Force: The Rise of Transnational Civil Society (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and Japan Center for International Exchange, 2001).
- Rodney Bruce Hall, and Biersteker, Thomas. The Emergence of Private Authority in Global Governance (Cambridge Studies in International Relations, 2003)
- Dorthea Hilhorst, The Real World of NGOs: Discourses, Diversity and Development, Zed Books, 2003
- Joan Roelofs, Foundations and Public Policy: The Mask of Pluralism (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2003).
- Ian Smillie, & Minear, Larry, editors. The Charity of Nations: Humanitarian Action in a Calculating World, Kumarian Press, 2004
- Wikipedia:Sidney Tarrow, The New Transnational Activism, New York :Cambridge University Press, 2005
- Thomas Ward, editor. Development, Social Justice, and Civil Society: An Introduction to the Political Economy of NGOs, Paragon House, 2005
- H. Teegen, 2003. ‘International NGOs as Global Institutions: Using Social Capital to Impact Multinational Enterprises and Governments’, Journal of International Management.
- S.Goonatilake. Recolonisation: Foreign Funded NGO's in Sri Lanka, Sage Publications 2006.
- Teegen, H. Doh, J., Vachani, S., 2004. “The importance of nongovernmental organisation in global governance and value creation: an international business research agenda“ in Journal of International Business Studies. Washington: Vol. 35, Iss.6.
- K. Rodman, (1998)."‘Think Globally, Punish Locally: Nonstate Actors, Multinational Corporations, and Human Rights Sanctions" in Ethics in International Affairs, vol. 12.
More useful are regional histories and analyses of the experience of NGOs. Specific works (although this is by no means an exhaustive list) include:
- T. R. Davies, The Possibilities of Transnational Activism: The Campaign for Disarmament between the Two World Wars, Brill, 2007. ISBN 3-598-22030-8
- H. Englund, Prisoners of Freedom: Human Rights & the Africa Poor, University of California Press, 2006
- Carrie Meyer, The Economics and Politics of NGOs in Latin America, Praeger Publishers, July 30, 1999
- Chhandasi Pandya. 2006. Private Authority and Disaster Relief: The Cases of Post-Tsunami Aceh and Nias. Critical Asian Studies. Vol. 38, No. 2. Pg. 298-308. Routledge Press: Taylor & Francis Group
- Maha Abdelrahman, Civil Society Exposed: The Politics of NGOs in Egypt, The American University in Cairo Press, 2004. Al-Ahram Weekly has done a review of the book.
- Sangeeta Kamat, Development hegemony: NGOs and The State in India, Delhi, New York; Oxford University Press, 2002
- Adama Sow, Chancen und Risiken von NGOs – Die Gewerkschaften in Guinea während der Unruhen 2007 – EPU Research Papers: Issue 03/07, Stadtschlaining 2007
- Lyal S. Sunga, "Dilemmas facing INGOs in coalition-occupied Iraq", in Ethics in Action: The Ethical Challenges of International Human Rights Nongovernmental Organizations, edited by Daniel A. Bell and Jean-Marc Coicaud, Cambridge Univ. and United Nations Univ. Press, 2007.
- Lyal S. Sunga, "NGO Involvement in International Human Rights Monitoring, International Human Rights Law and Non-Governmental Organizations" (2005) 41-69.
The de facto reference resource for information and statistics on International NGOs (INGOs) and other transnational organizational forms is the Wikipedia:Yearbook of International Organizations, produced by the Wikipedia:Union of International Associations.
|This page uses content from Wikipedia. The original article was at Template:Nongovernmental organization. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with Solar Cooking, the text of Wikipedia is available under the GNU Free Documentation License.|
<ref>tags exist, but no
<references/>tag was found